Goddag workshop

Amsterdam 1-5 December 2008


C.H., 14.04.09



Goddag (general ordered-descendant directed acyclic graph) was published in 2000 as a proposal for a data structure for the representation and processing of complex document structures. Since then, Goddags have been discussed in the markup community and used in practical applications for QA-based retrieval methods, linguistic analysis and textual criticism.

The workshop

The purpose of the workshop was to collect and assess experience from these discussions and applications, to identify strengths and shortcomings of Goddags compared to alternative data structures, and to initiate modifications and further development and application of Goddags within a wider perspective of research on data structures for complex documents.


The original program and announcement can be found on Ams-Prog03-A4.htm and



Some of the presentations given at the seminar are available below:

Claus Huitfeldt: Goddag

Michael Sperberg-McQueen: Rabbit/duck grammars: a validation method for overlapping structures

Maik Stührenberg et al.: Dealing with multiple annotated data – format and application

Andreas Witt and Oliver Schonefeld: Multiple Annotations and XCONCUR

Maarten Marx: Extracting structure from the web (also available in print version)

Wendell Piez: LMNL in Miniature. An introduction

Yves Marcoux: Variants of GODDAGs and suitable first-layer semantics

Paolo Marinelli, Fabio Vitali, Stefano Zacchiroli: Towards the unification of formats for overlapping markup